Castle Island Explored – Part 1

In this early spring photograph, taken from our Eyrie at Nead an Iolair, you can see Rossbrin Castle in the foreground. Beyond it lies Castle Island, uninhabited and slightly mysterious, but with clear traces of former occupation including a medieval tower house, a substantial quay and several abandoned dwellings. As we look over this island every day, we have long held an ambition to visit it, recently fulfilled when we were offered a lift out there on our good friend and neighbour’s fishing boat.

This map shows the scale of the island – just under a mile in length, and occupying 123 acres of mixed land. The main settlements – of Wester’ and Easter’ – are shown, as are the Quay and the Castle. It’s interesting to compare the two Ordnance Survey plans (below): the first 6″ edition was drawn up between 1829 and 1841, and the second one is the 25″ edition, drawn between 1888 and 1913. You can clearly see how the fields have changed, with new boundaries created in the later survey. Presumably this was due to an increase in population resulting in more clearances of rough land.

Both these maps show the Castle – said to date from the 15th century and one of the chain of O’Mahony fortresses that are strategically situated around this most south-westerly part of the Mizen. Of that clan we can find the following written by W O’Halloran in 1916:

Dr Smith says – these Mahowns derive their pedigree from Kean Mc Moyle More, who marrid Sarah, daughter to Brian Boru, by whom he had Mahown, the ancestor of all the sept. It is from this Kean the village of Iniskeen, in Carbery, has its name, and from this sept the Bandon is sometimes called Droghid Mahon. Mahon was the ancestor of the Mahonys, or O’Mahonys . . . The O’Mahonys, whose stronghlad was in the neighbourhood of Bandon (Drohid Mahon), were the first to encroach on the territory of the O’Driscolls. This occurred long before the Anglo-Norman invasion. They possessed themselves of the western portion of Corca Laidhe called Ivahah, which comprised the parishes of Kilmoe, Schull, Durrus, Kilcrohane, Kilmacougue, and Caheragh. They had fourteen strongly built castles . . .

Early Irish History and Antiquities and the History of West Cork, W O’Halloran

The M V Barracuda approaches Castle Island on an atmospherically damp day in late August. The quay itself seems to have been constructed  during the time of the Congested Districts Board from 1892 to 1922. It is a substantial structure and the investment in that time suggests that there was a significant community living and working on the island to justify it. However, a number of sources assert that Castle Island was “. . . home to a community of approximately 15 families who were last resident on the island up to the year 1870 . . .” Our own observations of the abandoned dwellings on the island led us to the conclusion that, although now significantly deteriorating, these habitations must have been in use more recently than this.

Examples of now-ruined houses, barns and boreens on Castle Island. These are not ‘cabins’ or even cottages, but significant homesteads. Some – including the large residence in the upper picture – have the vestigial remnants of timber door and window frames, unlikely to have survived in place in this harsh environment for 150 years.

A community of sheep roams unhampered by fences or boundaries, and Finola absorbed how nature has taken over and populated the landscape in spite of wild winters and lack of shelter: we counted precisely two and a bit trees on the whole island!

The story of this island is somewhat overlooked generally – one of the reasons we were so keen to visit. In our library, however, we are fortunate enough to have some copies of the Journals of the Mizen Archaelogical and Historical Society – now out of print. That Society was active for thirty years between 1979 and 2010, and produced a dozen journals gathering important historical research by mainly local people. Here’s a post we put together when our good friend Lee Snodgrass – a leading light in that organisation – passed away recently.

In that Journal we have found two articles about Castle Island. One – by Anthony Beese – explores the local placenames, and the other – by Liam O’Regan – speaks of The Castle Island Evictions 1889 – 90. This latter clearly shows that the island was inhabited in the late nineteenth century (apparently contrary to current popular thinking). Also, following those evictions, many of the tenants returned later and it seems very possible that some islanders remained in situ into the twentieth century. Both Journal articles have stories which need to be told, and I will attempt to do that in a later Roaringwater Journal post. For now, however, you will have to be content with . . . the story so far . . . which tells of our voyage of discovery to the island on an overcast day in the summer.

22 thoughts

  1. Hi, I am trying to find out more about my Husband’s ancestry based at Castle Island. His great grandfather was Jeremiah Regan.

    Does anyone know how I can make a bit of progress, we have very scant information.

    J O’Regan


  2. Wonderful article, photos and maps. Thankyou Robert. We look out at this enigmatic island, and always wondered about the stories in the stones. We have visited by kayak. Very much looking forward to part 2.

    Liked by 1 person

      • Hi Robert. This is fascinating and brings me back to happy days on Castle Island. I thought you might be interested to know that the first half of my novel Grace’s Day is set there – a slightly fictionalised account in that I imagine it further offshore. The house the family live in is the one on the easter end of the island facing Horse Island and the big house I call Tiraneering is actually based on Dereenatra House. The photographs here are marvellous and I love your blog in general.

        Liked by 1 person

  3. Exceptionally interesting article and photos, thank you so much. I well remember the Mizen Archaeological society too as I was a member and have fond memories of meetings and field-trips. Paddy O’Leary and Lee Snodgrass were wonderful people and so very well informed about the area. Enjoyed your post very much.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. The 1901 and 1911 census each show that there were six households there. My maternal grandmother was from one of those. I believe that her brother, Dan Nugent, was the last permanent resident and he left in 1949, I think.
    I, also, visited the island with some of my family in early August this year.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Excellent work, Diarmuid. That’s certainly tying in with what I’m currently turning up about the occupation of the island well into the 20th century! Great that you have direct links there…


    • Hello cousin nice to meet you. My grandfather also lived on that island and his name was Michael Nugent. He was the third youngest of 10 children born to Jerimiah and Margaret and he and his siblings were raised on Castle island where his father Worked as a farmer. I visited the island in 1980 and met a lot of relatives that still lived in Schull. Michael emigrated to America In 1896 and ran a saloon in Bayonne New Jersey. The reason I know all this is because I hired Kimberly McCorkell who is student genealogist from Australia to find out about Michael Nugent. We have started a Nugent tree on and if you would like to get in touch my email is


      • Being the new owner (subject to contract), I can assure you that there will be other times. Everybody should get to enjoy the beauty of as much of West Cork as possible. And the stretch from Audley Cove to Derreentra Pier is exceptional.

        (As an aside, if Robert could share his contact details with me directly by e-mail, I would appreciate it. I have long appreciated the Roaringwater Journal and would be interested to understand the sources for the history of the island.)

        Liked by 1 person

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