In Ireland, the tradition of building megalithic (mega=large, lithos=stone) structures that included chambers to house the dead (such as the Boyne Valley Passage Grave complex, or the Court Tomb of Creevykeel) belongs to the Neolithic period, which ended around 2500 BC. About this time, a new style emerged of stone ‘galleries’, oriented towards the setting sun. Their distinctive shape – narrower and shorter at the eastern end – gives them their common name, wedge tombs. This tradition appears to have flourished for about 500 years.
In other areas of Ireland wedge tombs were often covered by a mound, but there is little evidence for this in West Cork. The closest parallel to wedge tombs outside of Ireland are in Brittany where allées couvertes date from this period. They are associated in some parts of Ireland (although once again not in West Cork) with Beaker pottery, a distinctive kind of vessel widely distributed across Western Europe. This was a time in which the population was expanding, farming practices were intensifying and a brand new technology was being introduced – it was the dawn of the Copper Age. Thus, we can speculate that wedge tombs mark the confluence of two forces: the new continental technologies of pottery and metalworking and the indigenous tradition of erecting megalithic chambered tombs.
Wedge tombs occur mostly in the western half of Ireland, including many in County Clare such as the Parknabinnia tomb pictured below.
The largest wedge tomb in Ireland is near Fermoy, north of Cork City. It is typical of many Irish wedge tombs in featuring double walling, evidence of a surrounding cairn, and a sealed end chamber. Interestingly its name, Labbacallee, means the Hag’s Bed – the hag, or wise woman crops up frequently in Irish mythology.
In contrast to Labbacallee, wedge tombs in West Cork are generally smaller and simpler, comprising only one chamber and lacking a covering cairn. However, the distinctive wedge shape is preserved along with one other defining feature: wedge tombs are invariably oriented towards the setting sun. The funerary rite was that of cremation. Votive offerings of white quartz pebbles and small deposits of metal have been found in excavations.
Prof William O’Brien has excavated wedge tombs in West Cork and studied them, and the culture in which they were built, extensively. Here’s what he has to say, in his book, Iverni, about the society that produced them:
Whereas monuments like Newgrange could only have been built with a large organised input of labour over a long period, the building of wedge tombs was undertaken by small kin groups…This was a small scale society, comprised of local, clan-like groupings…The tomb was a type of shrine, sanctified by an association with ancestors and used for periodic offering and sacrifice to supernatural powers.
A striking aspect of Neolithic, Chalcolithic (Copper Age) and Bronze Age monuments in West Cork is their consistent orientation towards solar events such as sunrise and sunsets on the equinoxes, solstices and cross-quarter days (see our post on Bohonagh stone circle, for example). In this regard, wedge tombs are remarkably consistent in being oriented towards the West. Here’s O’Brien again:
Wedge tombs served as funnel-shaped openings to the Otherworld, facing the descending or setting sun to emphasise the symbolic dualism of light/life and darkness/death.
Looking for a wedge tomb closer to home, we set out yesterday to find the nearby Kilbronogue site, using the information from the National Monuments Service as a guide. We have found in the past that the mapping of sites is not always accurate and after an hour or two of tramping through a large and very muddy area with a helpful neighbour and his son we had to admit defeat – either the map was wrong, or the monument had disappeared in the recent fieldwork by a digger. Desperately hoping it was the former and not the latter, we found out who owned the land and went to call on him today. Stephen Lynch turned out to be a friendly, cheerful and very knowledgeable organic farmer – he assured us that the tomb would never be damaged in any way and not to worry, he would take us to it. Whew! Half an hour later we were trudging up a path that Stephen had had cut through his ash plantation – on we went and suddenly there it was in front of us – a classic wedge tomb, oriented to the west, built with large slabs that may have been cut from the rock face behind it.
Stephen told us the tomb had been used as a mass rock in penal times and that the Protestant farmers who owned all the farms that bordered on the rock had cooperated in allowing the masses to take place – an indication, Stephen said, of the long tradition of friendship between Catholic and Protestant farming families in this area. As with the Altar wedge tomb, also used as a mass rock, we marvelled at how a sacred site, built at least four thousand years ago, would retain its aura of veneration over the millennia, to be used again for religious purposes in the historic period.
Perhaps the most spectacularly situated wedge tomb we have been to is high on a hill overlooking Bantry. This one is known as Queen Medb’s Tomb and from it there are expansive views of the Beara, Sheep’s Head and Mizen Peninsulas. Climb up to it on a clear day, as the sun is sinking into the sea: in the presence of such awe-inspiring scenery you will find yourself contemplating how the mysteries and the wonders of Irish history and prehistory are written on its landscape.
As for disappearing monuments…. A standing stone I visited near Bruse Hill, Co. Cavan in 1980 I found to have been snapped off by a farmer backing his tractor up against it to push his hay-load up the lift a few years before my second visit in 2012: then the stone was already flattened into the moist field and along the way of disappearing. It is startling how quickly such monuments can be erased!
Startling and very depressing.
As for disappearing monuments…. I standing stone I visited near Bruse Hill, Co. Cavan in 1980 I found to have been snapped off by a farmer backing his tractor up against it to push his hay-load up the lift a few years before my second visit in 2012: then the stone was already flattened into the moist field and along the way of disappearing. It is startling how quickly such monuments can be erased!
While in Ireland the first time, my daughter and I enjoyed and were fascinated with Newgrange, so the wedge tomb was, of course, of great interest also. What a wonderful opportunity you have to visit and explore. And thank you again for sharing with us.
Hello to Robert also.
Another great blog! Interesting to compare the archaeology, including rock art, of West Cork and the Cumbrian Fells.
Hello Unlikely Archaeologist! Your site is great – took a good wander around it and have added it to our reader. You have an incredible landscape to work with.
Thanks for the re-blog, too.
Reblogged this on mountains of meaning and commented:
A wonderful place, must get down there again!
‘we marvelled at how a sacred site, built at least four thousand years ago, would retain its aura of veneration over the millennia, to be used again for religious purposes in the historic period.’ And so it is today with so many of our christian churches having been built upon sites of ‘pagan’ worship. I have often wondered if out of ‘respect’ ‘tradition’ or a desire to ‘obliterate’ take over or dominate.
Yes, good question! In Ireland I get the sense that one thing just gets re-purposed as another over time and because of the intense religiosity of the culture, historically, objects or sites were often assigned a devotional connection even if their original purpose was secular or mundane.
First of many visits to this site I hope – my parents were from West Cork. Your wedge tombs seem like a variant of the more plentiful dolmen? Love it how the Protestant community would allow their Catholic neighbours to celebrate Mass in the penal times.
Hi Roy. Nice to “meet” you and glad you’re enjoying the blog. Have you been to West Cork much? I’ve discovered that dolmens are now called “portal tombs” and are older than wedge tombs.
Hello Finola! Not so much in recent years – the odd trip over to Bandon, Dunmanway, Ballyvourney, Gougane Barra and suchlike. I set my latest novel midway between Bantry and Drimoleague so it’s very much in my genes I think 🙂 Best wishes
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Excellent foraging!! Well worth it, I love the big grin on Stephen’s face and a rather charming little wedge tomb. Have you been to Labbacallee yet? One for a day out?
Thank you – interesting, as always : – )
Finola Again thanks for a most interesting post. It is really helpful to have this kind of information. Sometime I would value your insights on archaeological matters along the St Finbarr’s way. Kind regards to you both David
Sorry it took a while to respond. Thanks for your comment. We have certainly wanted to do the Drimoleague walks for a while. This summer for sure! Happy to provide whatever insights I can, but am no expert.